 # Loss Function

#### 1. What is Loss Function?

Loss function, also known as cost function is a function that represents the difference between the actual and predicted values of a model. That is, if the function value is near 0, the model is considered more accurate than a model that has a function value around 1. Two popular loss functions are MSE and CEE.

#### 2. Types of Loss Function

✓ Mean Square Error (MSE) MSE is the squared difference between the actual value and the predicted value for each sample i, summed, and divided by the number of samples n.  ✓ Cross Entropy Error (CEE)

In thermodynamics, entropy represents 'molecular disorder.' But in information theory, this term represent 'the degree of uncertainty in information' or the 'the average amount of information about a probabilistic event.' Let's look at the following terms about CEE.

- Information Quantity
Information quantity has an equation as shown below. The reason for using the base 2 logarithmic function is simply that information theory uses the binary system of 0s and 1s. - Entropy
Entropy Entropy is a mean of information quantity and looks like the equation below. Entropy function is typically represented with - Cross Entropy Error
Cross entropy is defined as the amount of information a particular event X has for different probability distributions p and q. It is the calculated amount of information in the same event for two probability distributions. This can be thought of as calculating the average value for p based on the amount of information for q. Cross entropy, like the mean squared error, is difficult to predict if the value is too big. Let's look at an example below. Suppose that the actual distribution has the same probability for both events, but the model sees a higher probability in event Y. If events occurred in an order of , then the cross entropy of model is: On the other hand, let's say we improved model to create model . In this case, the cross entropy would be as follows. Since the cross entropy of model is lower than that of model , the model can be considered an improvement.

#### 3. Loss Function with CLICK Ai [Click 'details' of a model of your choice, and click on the 'Loss' tab to learn more about th loss function of the selected model.]